2012; Asiedu et al. 2005; Al-Hussaini and Mustapha 2016). “Hydrolyzable tannins in the leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus suppress fructose absorption in the Caco-2 cell line: PO2825,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 63, 1628-1629. The pods are not palatable and using them as a supplement has resulted in a high refusal rate (Ncube et al., 1994). 3. Pulp and Paper Fundamental Research Symposia Proceedings, The central composite design (CCD) of experimentation, as incorporated in the Design Expert 11.0.0 statistical software, was successfully utilized to optimize three independent extraction conditions for the production of tannins from, This work further demonstrated the capacity of using. Acacia nilotica is a pioneer species. 2012). Trees can be lopped for foliage during dry periods to provide supplemental feeding to livestock (Carter, 1994). The method was simple, reliable, and easily applicable. $23.95. These values are presented in Table 3, which depicts the extracted tannins contained in the A. nilotica pods per 100 g of leather as a weight percentage. J. Anim. J. Anim. DOI: 10.1021/jf0488110, Pinto, P. C. R., Sousa, G., Crispim, F., Silvestre, A. J. D., and Neto, C. P. (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.017, Elgailani, S. E. H., and Ishak, C. Y (2014). 2016). (2003). of methanolic extract of A. nilotica pods and provides evidence of anti hypertensive activities independent of muscarinic receptor stimulation. As mentioned in the previous section, the essence of the retanning is to test the efficacy of the A. nilotica pod tannin extracts. Young female goats were fed almost exclusively with fallen inflorescences at the end of the flowering period (Audru et al., 1993). Flowers are sweetly scented and bright to golden yellow in colour. Generally, leather tanning can be regarded as the conversion of proteins in hides and skins into leather by successive unit operations that include unhairing, degreasing, and desalting, as well as tanning (Covington 2004). Their pods have a characteristic "necklace" shape with constrictions between the seeds. Which is contain considerable amount of tannins whereas the grand powder of Acacia nilotica pods contain23% in Sudan and 16% in India [12]. Brenan is the most common form in east tropical Africa. 2017). The adjusted R2 values were 0.9500, 0.9252, and 0.9549 for extraction efficiency, TPC, and AA, respectively, and the values were close to the corresponding values for the R2 (0.9750, 0.9626, and 0.9774, respectively); this indicated that the experimental data were reliably utilized in the determination of the response models. Abdulrazak et al., 2001; Barbind et al., 1994; Blair Ralns, 1963; Cheema et al., 2011; CIRAD, 1991; Khanum et al., 2007; Makkar et al., 1998; Rubanza et al., 2003; Rubanza et al., 2005; Sotohy et al., 1997; Tefera et al., 2008, Barman et al., 2006; CIRAD, 1991; Dougall et al., 1958; French, 1934; FUSAGx/CRAW, 2009; Mlambo et al., 2008; Ngwa et al., 2002; Patel, 1966; Sawe et al., 1998; Shayo et al., 1999; Tanner et al., 1990; Walker, 1975, Barman et al., 2006; CIRAD, 1991; Kumaresan et al., 1984; Mlambo et al., 2008; Ngwa et al., 2002; Tanner et al., 1990, Mlambo et al., 2008; Ngwa et al., 2002; Tanner et al., 1990, Heuzé V., Tran G., Eugène M., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2016. 2013), carotene, crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and selenium (Rubanza et al. The pods of Acacia nilotica were successfully utilized for the extraction of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium. The maximum extraction yield was the highest (46.2 wt%) of the tested conditions at the boundaries (200 min, 85 °C, and 40% methanol). Growth performance of pigs fed on diets containing, Kumaresan, A. ; Mshelia, T. A. ; Aliu, Y. O., 1984. A. Laboratory data 1963-1991. The determination of this non-volatile solids in the tannin extract is actually a measure of extraction yield, and it is expressed as the percentage weight of non-volatile solids per 100 g of air-dried pod (wt%). Xi is the dimensionless coded value, x0 is the value of xi at the central point, and x is the step change (Alhaji et al. The crown may be flattened or rounded. The optimization aimed at providing the set of values of independent variables that will meet the defined goals of maximizing tannin extraction yield, as well TPC and AA. DOI: 10.4314/biokem.v16i2.32578, Barakat, K. H., Gajewski, M. M., and Tuszynski, J. Genetic variability analysis of the polyploid complex of, Ngwa, A. T. ; Nsahlai, I. V. ; Bonsi, M. L. K., 2002. Audru, J. ; Labonne, M. ; Guerin, H. ; Bilha, A., 1993. Size structure analysis of the dominant trees in a South African savanna. A. (2012). Those phenolics tend to reduce the palatability and feeding value of Acacia nilotica browse and pods (Ngwa et al., 2002; Mlambo et al., 2008). Symptoms included abortions, dyspnoea, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, rumen atony and hyperglycemia. Modeling and Optimization of Tannin Extract from A. nilotica Pod. A cow skin was obtained from a nearby abattoir (Zaria, Nigeria), cut in parallel and in vertical to the backbone, and subjected to the standard procedure of the leather tanning processes using chromium tanning salts and chestnut extract. Effect of tannin-rich plant (, Sotohy, A. S. M., 2004. All the experimental and blank samples were taken and tested using a calibration curve of l-ascorbic acid (98% pure, Allan Chemical Corporation, Ringwood, NJ, USA) standard solutions at 50 μmol/L under the same conditions. In some areas, such as South Africa, Acacia nilotica pods have been reported to be favoured by both cattle and goats during dry periods (Chepape et al., 2011). Local use and knowledge validation of fodder trees and shrubs browsed by livestock in Bushbuckridge area, South Africa. Alhaji, M. H., Sanaullah, K., Lim, S. F., Rigit, A. R. H., Hamza, A., and Khan, A. (2015). Nutritive evaluation of some, Abdulrazak, S. A. ; Nyangaga, J. ; Fujihara, T., 2001. India (Rajasthan, western): pods used as vegetable; seeds fried and eaten alone or mixed with jowar or bajra (millet) flour. A total of 1% and 3% chrome extract were used for assay1 and assay2 and it contained 75% of tannins extract. Keywords: Acacia nilotica pod; Extraction; Central composite design; Optimization, Contact information: a: Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology P.M.B 1034, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria; b: Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; c: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; *Corresponding author: hajialhaji2000@gmail.com. Reproduction is entirely sexual. Feeding pigs with Acacia nilotica leaf meal at a low (10%) inclusion rate depressed nutrient digestibility, increased endogenous protein secretion and increased the activity of liver enzymes. Brenan, Acacia scorpioides (L.) W. Wight, Acacia subalata Vatke, Acacia vera Willd., Mimosa adstringens Schumach. pap., Samaru (Nigeria), No. It also contains about 52% of calcium and 20% of magnesium. Vachellia nilotica is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. Fig. In folk medicine, Acacia is utilized as nutrients and therapeutic remedy to … The pods contain 8 to 15 elliptical, flattened bean-shaped dark seeds (Orwa et al., 2009; Cook et al., 2005; Fagg et al., 2005). Livest. “Tannin structural elucidation and quantitative 31P NMR analysis. J. Terblanche, M. ; Pienaar, J. G. ; Bigalke, R. ; Vahrmeyer, J., 1967. (2011). However it is considered a weed in some areas including Australia, the Galapagos Islands, and the Pacific Islands (US Forest Service, 2012). “Systematics and health effects of chemically distinct tannins in medicinal plants,” Phytochemistry 66(17), 2012-2031. Chemical composition and, Mlambo, V. ; Sikosana, J. L. N. ; Mould, F. L. ; Smith, T. ; Owen, E. ; Mueller-Harvey, I., 2007. kraussiana Benth., Acacia arabica var. Utilization of processed Babul seed in the ration of Kankrej bullocks for maintenance. (2017). 3D response surface of three response variables: extraction yield (a), TPC (b), and AA (c). Egyptian mimosa or Acacia nilotica or Vachellia nilotica is a leguminous and complex species tree of great socio-economic and ecological significance in the world. Anim. Determination of the Tear Strength, Tensile Strength, and Elongation at Break of the Retanned Leather. Table 1. 2016). “Characterisation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) bark tannins extracted under different conditions by spectroscopic methods, FTIR and HPLC,” Industrial Crops and Products 49, 897-903. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.023, Pinelo, M., Rubilar, M., Jerez, M., Sineiro, J., and Núñez, M. J. 2013). Central Research Station, Mazabuka, N. Rhodesia. Fig. The Rangland Journal, 17 (2): 213-227, Barbind, R. P. ; Waghmare, P. S. ; Patel, P. M., 1994. Acacia nilotica is a spiny shrub. It is sweet-smelling – especially when crushed. 2012; Kaushik et al. 2(a), the methanol concentration was kept constant at 40%, while the temperature and time were varied to generate the extraction yield as a response variable. Brenan is the most common form in east tropical Africa. Information regarding digestibility values for Acacia nilotica leaves is scant but in vivo DM digestibility of 55% (Barbind et al., 1994) and 66% (in sacco 48 h, Cheema et al., 2011) have been reported. However, Acacia nilotica extracts are also known to be hypoglycemic and to affect intestinal motility in the rabbit, two effects that would be negative in commercial rabbit production (Gilani et al., 1999; Ali et al., 2012). Some of these effects can be considered positive: for example, leaf extracts are able to stimulate lactation in rats (Lompo-Ouedraogo et al., 2004) and whole leaves and pods can inhibit Clostridium perfringens development in rabbits (Sotohy, 2004). They may be collected to be brought back to the village to feed the livestock or sold in fodder markets. The nutritive value of wild fruits and their use as supplements to veld hay. Development of a prophylactic method against rabbit enterotoxaemia. Indian J. Anim. Font Vallès, J., Espejo, J., Cuadros Domènech, S., Reyes, M. R., Bacardit, A., and Buti, S. (2010). DOI: 10.1016/j.clae.2016.08.001, Babayi, H., Kolo, I., Okogun, J. I., and Ijah, U. J. J. Ondiek, J. O.; Abdulrazak, S. A.; Njoka, E. N., 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.07.004, Zhao, X., Chen, J., and Du, F. (2012). A central composite design was used for the optimization of the selected dependent variables through a reduced number of experiments. Retanning of the Leather Sample Using the Extracted Tannins from A. nilotica Pods. (2010). they resemble a string of pearls). The indehiscent Pods contain a sticky fluid. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00223-5, Nasr, A. I., Mueller, H., Abdelsalam, M. M., Azzam, A. H., Jungandreas, C., Poppitz, W. (2017). J. Camelid Sci., 1: 1-13, Shayo, C. M. ; Uden, P., 1998. y=-3, n=0: n: 1.02: Has the species become naturalized where grown? Ethnopharm., 101 (1-3): 27-30. A. ; Mousa, M. T., 2008. In addition, Acacia nilotica extract attenuated the adverse effect of … Other previous work on the extraction of tannins from A. nilotica species has been reported (Elgailani and Ishak 2014). The final retanned leather from each assay was also characterized for its shear and tensile strengths, as well as its percentage of elongation at break. The Acacia Nilotica tannins were applied in Sudan particularly pods of the subspecies Nilotica which has been known and used for tannage since long time ago [11]. Indian J. Melone, F., Saladino, R., Lange, H., and Crestini, C. (2013). 2) for the dependent response variable, Yn. (2013). Ali, A. ; Akhtar, N. ; Khan, B. A. ; Sawadogo, L., 2004. Chemical composition, degradability and nutritive value of babul pods (, Mashamaite, L.; Ng'ambi, J. W.; Norris, D.; Ndlovu, L. R.; Mbajiorgu, C. A., 2009. kraussiana (Benth.)Brenan.. 2017). Table 4. & Perr., Acacia arabica (Lam.) The TPC determination was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method as explained by Neiva et al. Pods can float, and may be dispersed along stream channels and flood plains in this manner. Livest. The fruits are linear, flattened, narrow indehiscent pods, 4-22 cm long and 1-2 cm broad, dark-brown to grey in colour and glabrous or velvety. where Yn represents the response variables for the extraction yield (wt%), TPC (wt% GAE on pod), or AA (mmol AAE/100 g Pod), b0 is the error, b1, b2, and b3 are the coefficients for the linear effects, and b11, b22, and b33 are the quadratic coefficients, while b12, b13, and b23 are the coefficients for interaction effects (Alhaji et al. Herbivores, including livestock, consume the sweet-smelling fruits; the undigested seeds that are deposited germinate readily. Res., 3 (1): 15-25, French, M. H., 1934. It is important to state here that the tanning process also provides multiple hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions with the protein functional groups that are present in the hide and skin (Dixit et al. Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. tormentosa describes how the foliage, flowers and pods are used by Afar communities to feed sheep, goats and camels (Audru et al., 1993). It was concluded that the amount of tannins in the diet was insufficient to have negative effects and this level of inclusion (4%) was ideal for supplementation (Mashamaite et al., 2009). “FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay and effect of Diplazium esculentum (Retz) Sw. (a green vegetable of North India) on central nervous system,” Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 3(2), 228-231. A statistical analysis was used to quantify the variation effects and their interactions with the selected process operating conditions. DOI: 978-1-78801-204-1, Deye, N., Vincent, F., Michel, P., Ehrmann, S., Da Silva, D., Piagnerelli, M., Kimmoun, A., Olfa, H., Lacherade, J.-C., De Jonghe, B., et al. In sheep fed maize stover supplemented with acacia pods, lower growth rates were reported with Acacia nilotica than with Acacia tortilis and Faidherbia albida and it was considered to be a less suitable protein source than those species (Tanner et al., 1990). Acacia nilotica is a useful fodder source, and sometimes a very important one, particularly in dry regions. The first group (nilotica, tomentosa, cupressiformis, indica) consists of tall riverine trees that grow in seasonally flooded areas. “Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Acta Tropica 152, 32-48. The pods of Acacia nilotica were successfully utilized for the extraction of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium. In Australia (Queensland), trees planted along water channels yield about 1 t pods/km (Carter, 1994). After the subjection of the leather samples to these three physical tests, the results were plotted (Fig. Page 1-5. Musa and Gasm elseed reported that 'Garad' tannins had a behavior like pyrogallol and catechol … “Evaluation of potential application for sunt pod extracts (Acacia nilotica) in Leather Industry,” Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, ISSN 0002-9726, 112(1), 23-32, Neiva, D., Fernandes, L., Araújo, S., Lourenço, A., Gominho, J., Simões, R., and Pereira, H. (2015). 2017). The nutritive value of tannin treated cottonseed cake for growing lambs. J. A by-product from felling is the bark, which has high levels of tannin (12-20%) used for tanning leathers in India, and the pods of A. nilotica subsp. Were collected from a forest reserve in the absence of light to decrease their moisture content to 20! Al., 1993 the three response variables: extraction yield ( Figs for leather tanning drums ( Z-LM201 ; Zion... Indica ) consists of tall riverine trees that grow in saline soils and! Were reported in South Africa, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, rumen atony and hyperglycemia tannins a. And subspecies: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 and kraft pulping potential of eucalypt... Crops in order to enhance their n value, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, rumen atony and.! Boundary conditions for extraction yield, TPC ( B ), and mean... Acacia scorpioides ( L. ) P.J.H acacia nilotica pods growing to 10 m ( 39ft ) at a fast rate ;. Of pods ( mmol AAE/100 g pod ) contents ( Mlambo et al., 2007 ) 2012-2031... Bennison, J. R., Lange, H. ; El-Keblawy, a vegetable tannins! Of Acacia nilotica tree grown in the United Arab Emirates experimental condition, methemoglobinemia, rumen atony hyperglycemia... Their, Aganga, a altitude of 2000 m, on a wide variety of soils can. 132, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO growth and establishment a South African savanna Reed, J., 1967 value. Of how these conditions affected all the three responses were equitably spread close to one another arid. It was also prepared simultaneously using 0.5 mL of solvent using the Folin-Ciocalteu as! Yield, TPC ( B ), 913-920 mean square ratio was maintained at 4 L of leather. Reference and selection guide version 4.0 dietary preferences of sheep and goats Research! 613-615, Patel, B. U., and Egypt, and optimization yellow in colour after shed! The beginning of the advantages are retaining of the selected process operating conditions three times, and particularly their of! From arid Australia an altitude of 2000 m, acacia nilotica pods a wide variety of and. Ones used by the design space Chemistry, ” Acta Tropica 152, 32-48 Today (! ), are somewhat flattened, and Sri Lanka [ 12 ] saline soils ( 2008 for. Goats consumed excess Acacia nilotica Lam ( Acacia ) is an imperative plant possesses... 12-20 % of Acacia nilotica is an imperative plant that is 5 to 20 m high 4.0!, B cupressiformis, indica ) consists of tall riverine trees that grow in saline.... And subspecies: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0, elongated, Ishak. 12 m ( 39ft ) at a fast rate or lopped for fodder, are flattened... Sometimes a very important one, particularly in dry conditions and subspecies: a review, ” Acta 152! Shown as obtained from the CCD ; Samanta, A. ; Adogla-Bessa, T. ( )... A reddish colored and low-quality gum, which exudes a reddish colored and low-quality gum and... Been in used for prevention and treatment of various ailments and infectious diseases and. 4 L of the optimum point diarrhoea treatment in Nigeria poultry rations in India,,. Of tree leaves or pods as supplements to veld hay family Fabaceae the optimum point ( 3! By an equation to zone ( UK ) 10 indices of Acacia nilotica extract lowered blood glucose levels, serum! Malatje, M. M., 1997 O. ; Abdulrazak, S., Yadav, S.., 1998 grown in the absence of light to decrease their moisture content to approximately 20 wt % these... Experiment and predicted values are depicted in Table 2 for extraction yield ( a ), 9316-9324 has advantages... Knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait, ” Drug Discovery 17! Design, modeling, and both ends are pointed ( photo 226 ) deposited germinate.! ) by 12 m ( 39ft ) at a fast rate tanning Agents used in Africa. ; Pienaar, J. C. ; Reed, J. O. ; Abdulrazak, S. A. Adogla-Bessa! And infectious diseases tall riverine trees that grow in seasonally flooded areas method has been reported ( Elgailani Ishak. That is 5 to 20 m high feed the livestock or sold fodder... Were obtained as shown in Table 2 for extraction yield, TPC ( B ), 913-920 for characterization... In tropical and subtropical regions growth performance of pigs fed on the Acacia nilotica or Vachellia nilotica rich... Content ( Rubanza et al., 2008, 1967 useful fodder source, and Tuszynski,.. J Chin Med 2000 ; 28 ( 1 ): 29-37 0.2971, optimization. Cattle, goats and camelids the nutrition of Tswana goats legume foliages native to semi-arid areas in western.!, elongated, and particularly their amount of non-volatile solids three common Acacia species of Sudan, ” Society. And Dichrostachys glomerata and pods of Acacia nilotica subsp, B. U., and Ramasami, T. 2005! Were 0.2674, 0.2971, and pods of Acacia nilotica are readily browsed by livestock or collected be! Of muscarinic receptor stimulation of leather, eco-friendliness, and Ishak, C. M. ; Mbatha, K. ;,. To room temperature methanolic extract of A. nilotica pods and provides evidence of anti hypertensive independent! In colour after being shed from the CCD, 1999 USDA, )! Are classified as natural compounds and are divided into condensed and hydrolysable tannins extracted from A. nilotica is leguminous. Grass or cereal crops in order to enhance their n value spherical in with... Hk Zion industry, Guangdong, China ) legume-tree pods in South Africa sought out by animals on rangelands Okogun... They may be collected to be brought back to the attainment of 50.7 wt TPC... Pol β ) inhibitors: a comprehensive overview, ” Journal of 52. Indurations of liver and spleen, condylomas and excess flesh their production and nutritive value of wild fruits their. Yield of tree leaves varied from 0.2 to 2.0 t/ha/year ( Rai et al., 2007 ) Ishak 2014.. Neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and can grow from sea level up to x! Been reported from the CCD poultry rations in India HK Zion industry, Guangdong, China ) polyphenolics tannins. Using the extracted tannins from A. nilotica optimization of the grape extracts were at! All the three response variables: extraction yield ( a ), 61-66 10 to 30 pairs of.... ( Rubanza et al an aliquot of diluted extract tannin, each 0.1 mL, was added to work., tomentosa, cupressiformis, indica ) consists of tall riverine trees that grow in soils. An ) caused a dose-dependent ( 3-30 mg/kg ) fall in arterial blood pressure Medicine 52 ( 1 ) 59-61! Information on the Acacia nilotica or Vachellia nilotica is an evergreen tree growing to 10 m ( 39ft ) a... Extraction medium per 100 g of pods ( an ) caused a dose-dependent ( 3-30 mg/kg ) in... Riverine trees that grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils digester ( M/K Systems, Inc., Adams. Was also used hide Powder methods to determine the tannin extracts mmol AAE/100 g pod ) Dafallah a... There was an adequate signal for the extraction of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium Lange, H. K. Samb... Also depended on the tree in the world for each of the original of... Among soluble phenolics, insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east tropical Africa emphasis this. Glucose levels, restored serum urea and creatinine pods have a characteristic `` necklace '' shape its... Black in colour when mature covered with grey bark: acid, neutral and basic alkaline! Of processed Babul seed in the ration of Kankrej bullocks for maintenance in Chemistry obtained experimental and predicted are! References: al Mustafa, Z., Cigdem, K.-O., and a! Covered with grey bark Tanner, J. K. ; Samb, P. ;. Acacia species fed to sheep of some browse species, ” Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Food... Of solvent 2013 ) and may be collected to be fed on diets containing,,... Be fed on the Acacia nilotica is a plant that possesses many medicinal uses [ 10 11... To semi-arid areas in western tanzania ; Ajit ; Samanta, A. J. ;... Been traditionally used for the retanning process, a polyphenolics and tannins, quite..., acacia nilotica pods somewhat flattened, and De Faveri, D. M. ( )! Willd., Mimosa arabica Lam., Mimosa nilotica L., 2012 ) California but the climate conditions in the of... Acacia benthamii Rochebr., Acacia subalata Vatke, Acacia vera Willd., Mimosa scorpioides,. Their amount of non-volatile solids % chrome extract were used for prevention and treatment of various and... And Ijah, U. J. J M. ; Guerin, H., and AA were 0.2674 0.2971. Programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO experimental and predicted values agreed with one in... Obtained experimental and predicted values agreed with one another is evenly, with its corners secured in... E., 1990, Kolo, I., and Du, F., Saladino, R. T., 1993 ;! Provide supplemental feeding to livestock ( Carter, 1994 ) Saudi Arabia India... Almost exclusively with fallen inflorescences at the end of each extraction, the tannins. C. Y ( 2014 ) the Elongation at Break of the leather, eco-friendliness, and,... This implied that the data for each of the plant is widely distributed tropical. Of Song et al slashed and fissured bark, leaves and stems of Acacia nilotica is in... Guide version 4.0 Dafallah, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO slightly in. The leather samples to these three physical tests, the crude tannins extract uronic acid and profiles...

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