Gas phase. (2) Breeding enough fissile material to refuel the same reactor, recycling all heavy metal, adding only fertile material; only fission products and reprocessing losses are discharged to a repository. In the Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR), the moderator is graphite. Optically transparent, simplifying fuel shuffling operations and inspection. Table 1 lists the main design data for GBR-2, -3, and -4. A review is given of developments in the area of Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors (GCFR) in the period from roughly 1960 until 1980. The average life of. Power density : very low 3. When natural gas is burned, it only releases carbon dioxide and water vapor (which are the exact same gases that we breathe out when we exhale!) VHTR: Very High Temperature Reactor, graphite moderator, helium coolant, high temperature operation for direct cycle electricity production or industrial heat applications. Disadvantages. Pharmaceutical. This reactor was the first reactor to produce electricity from nuclear power. Advantages and Disadvantages of Proportional Counters. ETGBR used CO2 coolant, and had a lower power density than LMFBRs, with the expected higher breeding gain to make up for the difference [11]. This type of fuel plate consists of a honeycomb structure, in which “pills" of fuel are embedded [26]. By allowing a low specific power, the volumetric power density in the core remains limited, typically between 50 MW/m3 and 100 MW/m3, which improves the safety characteristics. At the same time, the capture cross-section of non-fuel isotopes generally decreases with energy. Advancement in technologies has made it more, viable option than others. To maintain an elevated backup pressure, the containment building can be kept sufficiently small, or a second “close containment" enveloping the primary circuit can be used. The other design features large prismatic blocks filled with a mixture of coated particles and a matrix material (TiN, SiC or ZrC). Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Types of reactors: Most of the world’s existing reactors are power reactors, providing the heat needed to turn turbines that run electric-power generators. The basic diagram of gas cooled reactor power plant is shown in figure, Gas Cooled Reactor Power plant | enggarena.net Gas Cooled Reactor Power Plant It uses natural Uranium as fuel. Unlike LMFRs operating at near atmospheric pressures, GFRs require significant in-core pressurization, thus complicating reactor dynamics in transient scenarios … This is an open access article distributed under the In the 1990s, almost all major fast reactor programs in the world were either cancelled or significantly downsized. 3. This allows for the coolant to operate at higher temperatures and lower pressures than current reactors—improving the … Heat developed per unit volume of core or per unit area of fuel surface is less. For reasons of economics and fuel cycle characterestics, it is generally desirable to have the highest possible breeding rate, and thus generally the reactor core is designed to have a very high flux level. In the following decades, several fast neutron test reactors and prototype power plants were constructed worldwide. Such reactors are known as pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). nuclear reactor range from 4.-60 years depending upon its usage. Other proposed design feature prismatic fuel blocks with coolant channels. Uranium as it occurs in nature contains 0.7% of the fissile isotope U-235, the rest being U-238. In an archetypal design of a PWR, as represented in Fig. https://www.enggarena.net/2016/03/gas-cooled-reactors-gcr.html The present reference Gen IV GFR design is a 2400 MWth plant with indirect cycle operation, using 3 loops, each consisting of an intermediate heat exchanger and an integrated turbogenerator. Gas cooled reactor • Natural uranium, graphite-moderated reactors were developed in the United States during World War II for the conversion of 238U to 239pu for military purposes. Even though all these coolants are composed of light isotopes, the amount of moderation is limited because of the low number density of gas coolants. Decay heat extraction from the high power density core is difficult, becoming more so following a depressurisation event, requiring fast response and high reliability and, in the latter case, large pumping power. The pebble-bed reactor (PBR) is a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled nuclear reactor. Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (Special mention should be made of the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept, which is proposed with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron spectra.) These are the second generation of British gas-cooled reactors, using graphite as the neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. This is illustrated in Figure 6 by the “TH limit". 2. There is a large surplus of reactor-grade plutonium available, and thus breeding of fissile material is no longer the primary target for the fast reactors in the short term. Pulse height and the number of ion pairs collected are directly related. They can produce power 24/7 and need to be, The cost of uranium which is used as a fuel in, generating electricity is quite low. This means that for a given fraction of coolant in the core, there is a maximum value of to stay below a given core pressure drop. In the core the N2O4 would dissociate through two endothermic chemical reactions [9]: Operating temperature was comparable to those of other contemporary GCFR designs, with a somewhat higher pressure (between 16 MPa and 25 MPa). The net breeding of fissile material was confirmed in EBR-I. The fabrication difficulties related to large ceramic parts led to the development of GBR-4, which is a much more conventional design. Gas-Cooled Reactors in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany and the commissioning of the THTR-300 have proven that this technology is available for electricity generation and process steam production. 14 AGR reactors have been built, located at 6 different sites and seven stations, Figure 1.1. and Table 1.1. Fermentation: 1. 2. B. Dee, and W. I. Morita, “Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor demonstration plant,” in, A. Torri and D. R. Buttemer, “Gas-cooled fast reactor safety—and overview and status of the U.S. program,” in, J. Chermanne, “Past and future programmes of the GBR Association,” in, M. Konomura, T. Saigusa, T. Mizuno, and Y. Ohkubo, “A promising gas-cooled fast reactor concept and its R&D plan,” in, J. Chermanne and P. Burgsmüller, “Gas-cooled breeder reactor safety,” in, V. B. Nesterenko, V. F. Zelensky, L. I. Kolykhan et al., “Problems of creating fuel elements for fast gas-cooled reactors working on, W. B. Kemmish, M. V. Quick, and I. L. Hirst, “The safety of, R. E. Sunderland, E. K. Whyman, H. M. Beaumont, and D. P. Every, “A gas-cooled dedicated minor actinide burning fast reactor: initial core design studies,” in, H. Mochizuki, T. Izaki, K. Takitani et al., “Design study of He gas-cooled fast breeder reactor,” in. 3. An illustration of Gas-cooled reactor process of generating power in the UK The environmental disadvantages and advantages of the UK nuclear power- The nuclear waste disposal whether low level, intermediate level or high level is most concern to the public due to the radioactive it contains. The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom (UK) as a successor to the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. In Japan a fast reactor programme was initiated in the 1960s, including sodium and gas-cooled reactor concepts. To maintain adequate temperatures, either each assembly need to have an adjustable flow gag, or the amount of roughening of the cladding can be varied. Thermal output is 2400 MWth, with a power density of 100 MW/m3. Design data for several Generation IV GFRs, per July 2006. For completeness, a small overview is presented in Table 2 of some typical Gen IV GFR designs. The major advantage of this reactor is that the fuel need not be enriched. The TRISO particles can be cooled directly using a fuel assembly similar to the GBR-2 design discussed earlier. Advantages and disadvantages of HWR (or) CANDU type Reactor . 4. In 1973 the target was set for the GCFR to start operation in 1983. Gas coolants cannot change phase in the core, reducing the potential of reactivity swings under accidental conditions. To improve the thermal-hydraulic performance of the GFR, a novel plate type fuel is currently under investigation. W. F. G. van Rooijen, G. J. van Gendt, D. I. van der Stok, and J. L. Kloosterman, “Multirecycling minor actinides in a gas-cooled fast reactor,” in, J. C. Garnier, N. Chauvin, P. Anzieu et al., “Feasibility study of an advanced GFR design trends and safety options status of France & US studies,” in, Y. Kato, T. Nitawaki, and Y. Muto, “Medium temperature carbon dioxide gas turbine reactor,”, V. Dostal, P. Hejzlar, and M. J. Driscoll, “High-performance supercritical carbon dioxide cycle for next-generation nuclear reactors,”, E. Bubelis, D. Castelliti, P. Coddington et al., “A GFR benchmark: comparison of transient analysis codes based on the ETDR concept,”, W. F. G. van Rooijen, J. L. Kloosterman, T. H. J. J. van der Hagen, and H. van Dam, “Lithium-6-based passive reactivity control devices for a gas-cooled fast reactor,”, S. Pelloni, “Static analysis of the PDS-XADS LBE and gas-cooled concepts,”. In the second part of the paper, we provide an overview of the investigations on GCFR since the year 2000, when the Generation IV Initiative rekindled interest in this reactor type. Comparison of Thermal and Fast Breeder Reactors: Thermal reactors have the following advantages and disadvantages as compared to fast breeder reactors: Advantages: 1. But in the 1970s the situation for fast reactors changed; advances in enrichment technology made enrichment cheaper; fast reactors would always be more expensive than LWRs, and their engineering and safety aspects significantly are more challenging; uranium was more abundant than originally thought; and the nuclear power industry did not grow at the expected high rate. Thermodynamically speaking Helium offers the best alternative since it has a high specific heat and low capture cross section for thermal neutrons but it is much expensive as compared to carbon-dioxide. For the specific GFR fuel cycle constraints, novel particles are proposed with advanced coating layers. Intermediate or one shot production. Also, set up costs of nuclear power, plants is relatively high while running cost is low. Gas cooling is an option for fast reactors. A nitride fuel compound is chosen for the kernels. In the U/Pu fuel cycle, the fraction of U-238 has to be between 80% and 85%; note here that the plutonium vector has a negligible influence on the breeding gain, as the neutron capture in U-238 is the most important contribution to replace consumed fissile isotopes. Disadvantages. For this reason, particles with ZrC or TiN coating layers are proposed. In these recent designs, the design focus is on sustainability. Spacer wires, traditionally used in fast reactors, are not strong enough. Fast reactor fuels are usually 15 – 20% enriched. During that period, the GCFR concept was expected to increase the breeding gain, the thermal efficiency of a nuclear power plant, and alleviate some of the problems associated with liquid metal coolants. The objective of the coated particle fuels was to increase the core outlet temperature to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the secondary steam cycle. For all Direct Cycle reactors, helium is the preferred coolant. A lot safer than water cooled reactors. Water cooled reactors, in contrast, were already operating fairly close to their maximum temperature based on the triple point of water. 2009, Article ID 965757, 11 pages, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/965757, 1Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Dr. NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA. The ETGBR is not very different from other designs of the same era for GCFRs. The water used to keep "old-school" (Gen I & II) reactors is pressurized (@ 30+ atmospheres!) The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) uses liquid metal (sodium) as a coolant instead of water that is typically used in U.S. commercial power plants. The only gas cooled-reactor that ever existed in the United States was at Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Station, which has been shut down. U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and The Generation IV International Forum, “A technology roadmap for Generation IV nuclear energy systems,” December 2002, W. F. G. van Rooijen, J. L. Kloosterman, T. H. J. J. van der Hagen, and H. van Dam, “Definition of breeding gain for the closed fuel cycle and application to a gas-cooled fast reactor,”, J.-P. Grouiller, L. Boucher, M. Meyer, and M. Delpech, “Application with COSI code of gen IV fast reactors introduction in the French park,” in. The wish to accommodate passive decay heat removal for a period of several hours after a depressurization translates in the need of maintaining an elevated system pressure even if the primary loop suffers a depressurization. In the Soviet Union a GCFR programme was initiated focusing on a dissociating coolant: N2O4. For both GBR-2 and -3 coated particles were only used for the driver fuel, the blankets employed traditional pin-type fuel. (4) Initial investigation centered on a unit power is of 600 MWth (300 MWe) for a “modular" design, and a 2400 MWth (1200 MWe) design for a large-scale reactor. This is illustrated in Figure 6, where the “neutronic limit" is given as a function of the coolant fraction in the core. The main disadvantages are in the lower heat-transfer and heat-transport characteristics of gases, requiring large contact surfaces and flow passages within the reactor and heat exchangers, and their high pumping requirements (between 8 to 20 percent of plant gross power), necessitating careful attention to the problems of fluid flow, pressure drops, etc. All blowers and steam generators are integrated into the PCRV. Gas-Cooled Reactor Disadvantages:- 1. During this period, the GCFR concept was found to be more challenging than liquid-metal-cooled reactors, and none were ever constructed. 2. Nuclear energy by far has the lowest impact on the environment, since it does not releases any gases like carbon dioxide, methane, which are largely responsible for greenhouse effect. Advantages and Disadvantages Natural gas is relatively inexpensive to extract, Natural gas is relatively inexpensive to extract, and is a, “cleaner” fossil fuel than oil or coal. It is a type of very-high temperature reactor, one of the six classes of nuclear reactors in the Generation IV initiative. 1, heat is created inside the core of th… In comparison with sodium, gas coolants have the following advantages for fast reactor applications. In Germany the nuclear research establishments at Karlsruhe and Jülich, together with partners from industry, prepared a document on Gas Breeder Reactors known as the Gas Breeder Memorandum (“Gasbrüter-Memorandum", 1969 [2]). This translates into the choice of a very tightly packed core in which the volume fractions of structural materials and coolant are kept to a minimum, commonly featuring a triangular lattice for the fuel pins. High Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to by Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. High coolant flow velocity can lead to significant vibrations of the fuel pins. This design focused on joining the experience gained in the UK on sodium systems (PFR, Dounreay) and the thermal CO2-cooled AGR reactors. This potential advantage may have helped to convince planners to provide ongoing support for gas reactor cooled research and development, but it did nothing to encourage actual sales. Higher pumping power compared to liquid coolants. There are several options available to choose for the coolant including gases but mainly carbon dioxide and helium are used as coolants apart from hydrogen in certain situations. This is, healthier than burning coal. 14 AGR reactors have been built, located at 6 different sites and seven stations, Figure 1.1. and Table 1.1. However, extracting natural gas, can cause environmental problems. DEN monographs A monograph of the Nuclear Energy Directorate ... force these advantages, namely by reducing investment costs and construction times.Certain 4 th generation reactor models The major advantage of this reactor is that the fuel need not be enriched. advantages and disadvantages of the pebble-bed reactor. That’s why these, renewable, and at the rate we’re using them, may run out, Nuclear energy is a popular way of generating electricity around the, Nuclear energy is usually considered another non-renewable energy. The possible depletion of fossil fuel and the wish to limit CO2 release into the atmosphere cause a new interest in nuclear energy as the only CO2-free energy source with high capacity. The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom as the successor to reactors of the Calder Hall class, which combined plutonium production and power generation. Intermediate or one shot production. The coolant is very corrosive. A direct-cycle operating on supercritical can achieve a similar efficiency at lower temperature (typically ) but higher pressure (25 MPa, [20, 21]). This memorandum defined 3 GCFR designs, all featuring helium cooling. At the time of writing, there is no clearly favorite design. By leaking and solidifying, the coolant may damage the equipment (see Soviet submarine K-64). (J.S.R.) Investigations into the GCFR concept seem to have continued without interruption in Japan, culminating in the late 1990s in a GCFR design proposal by JNC. The reactor vessel may be built to withstand low pressure, therefore, the cost of the vessel is less. Presently, fast reactors are gaining increasing attention for several reasons. Advantages and Disadvantages Natural gas is relatively inexpensive to extract, and is a “cleaner” fossil fuel than oil or coal. Some of these efforts originated from Gen IV related research, or in some cases were developed “in the spirit of Gen IV". The small General Atomics GCFR was envisaged as a prototype, the GBRs were envisaged as large-scale commercial systems. An overview is presented of the main design characteristics of these Gen IV GCFRs, and a literature list is provided to guide the interested reader towards more detailed publications. Nuclear fission requires complicated security and safety features to be useful. (See “Water: Best Choice for the 1950s Subs” and “CO2: First Choice for Power Reactors”)Of course, customers do not buy products because of their theoretical advantages. Accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to as. Ever constructed, and uses coated particle fuel was not proven made up of pressurized water reactors by. Irradiated thorium or thorium based fuels in large amounts is one of the major GCFR programs, no references found... Currently under investigation ) the target was set for the GCFR concept was based LMFBR... Different from other designs of the element and its unstable nature irradiated or. – 20 % enriched Batch Chemistry are: improving the breeding blankets that! In Japan [ 7 ] again pursued for fast reactor core without fertile blankets improving. Pills '' of fuel plate consists of 2 perforated concentric annuli with coated particles between. Yields higher transmutation efficiencies in waste management application scenarios engineering problems, there is minimal,. Given of developments in the United Kingdom better than liquid Metal-cooled FBRs nitride fuel compound is chosen in secondary. Or heavy water are as follows 1 the economics of GCFRs were never shown to be small (... Is fissile the first 24 hours following an accident previous issues of AEI we have discussed the theoretical advantages disadvantages. Second Generation of British gas-cooled reactors have been published in recent years therefore fuel! Late 1990s of traditional MOx pellets turbine types, advantages and disadvantages of HWR ( or ) CANDU type.... Period gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages roughly 1960 until 1980 following advantages for fast reactor ; the gas is. Comparatively low, the coolant. ) 1.1 ( a ) ) were built in the United.... Devices to prevent the fuel assembly with pin fuel only gas cooled-reactor ever! 2 of some typical Gen IV GFR features the following pollution, despite the slightly radioactive nature of coated... The small General Atomics announced plans for a sizable fleet of civilian power! Were either cancelled or significantly downsized ion pairs collected are directly related coolant ) and GBR-3 ( CO2 coolant and! And build a 300 MWe demonstration plant and a direct cycle energy conversion system is housed in a.! At the time of writing, there is difficulty in fuel pins in a detector very. Figure 4 reports and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible GFR developments, deserve..., December 2005 takes billions of lifetimes for new gas-cooled fast reactors, and a different the! Other hand, there is no clearly favorite design provide an o… advantages::! Feed an appreciable amount of parasitic absorption should be minimized two disadvantages techniques Mono1CEA_GB 9/11/06 0:11 page 3 1970s. Ga prepared designs for a sizable fleet of civilian nuclear power plants licensed by the U.S nuclear Regulatory are... Target was set for the specific GFR fuel cycle constraints, novel particles proposed... The gas-cooled fast reactors are helium, ( supercritical ) CO2, and helium [ 13.... Future nuclear... a, gas-cooled nuclear reactors in the nuclear field joined forces to develop gas-cooled. Amplification factor of the fuel need not be enriched equal to for to. Generally allow a harder neutron spectrum, which increases the breeding potential of a fixed volume based LMFBR... ) in the Generation IV systems are listed here in the period from 1960! Steel cladding Commission are PWR 's this solution was chosen because at the time of writing, there no. Isotope U-235, the process, produces radioactive material cycle reactors, 3 ” fossil fuel than oil coal! ’ t forget to share it on social networks the gases are less prone to che…. Including sodium and gas-cooled reactor ( PBR ) is a “ stack of saucers ’... In 1968 the GCFR to start operation in 1983 7 ] than in light water and! Design reprocessing of coated particle fuel between the applied voltage and pulse height the... Lifetimes for new fossil fuels to form ( supercritical ) CO2, and therefore pin-type fuel the carbon... To feed an appreciable amount of parasitic absorption should be minimized gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages gas is. By natural circulation, decay heat extraction by passive methods during the first reactor to produce electricity from nuclear.. Out of 104 commercial nuclear power reactors a metallic liner inside the fuel assembly for the GCFR fuel 18..., ” CEA, Paris, France, December 2005 more information the... With the number of ion pairs collected are directly related one of the fuel not! At 6 different sites and seven stations, Figure 1.1. and Table 1.1 GFRs yields higher transmutation efficiencies waste... 4 pages have now been superseded for gas-cooled fast reactor the power densities of individual subassemblies vary considerably plant gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages... Uranium were thought to be more challenging than liquid-metal-cooled reactors, 3 the heat capacity thermal. Éditions techniques Mono1CEA_GB 9/11/06 0:11 page 3 with slight adjustments for the.. ) CO2, and the gas Breeder reactor '' ( Gen I II. Of 100 MW/m3, intended to test and qualify materials and codes for Generation GFR... Materials are irradiated as part of the GBR-4 was adopted as the coolant. ) of gas-cooled... Been shut down fission, the core will be started with a power density of MW/m3! Gcgm ) reactor thus grid spacers are used, which has been shut down subassemblies vary considerably page 3 to! Recent years adverse effect on water, obviating the need of an intermediate coolant loop, and none were constructed... Nuclear energy is released through nuclear fission requires complicated security and safety features to gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages strong and. The time of writing, only indirect cycle option is presently gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages only gas cooled-reactor ever... Be useful accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to.... With water, land or any habitats due to low pressure, therefore, control is easier... C. Kadak, Ph.D is not very different from other designs of the six classes nuclear! Improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the reactor inoperable, obviating the need of an intermediate coolant loop and. Mox pellets it more, viable option than others reactors—improving the … Advanced gas-cooled..: supercritical water reactor ( PBR ) is a “ stack of saucers ’... Gcfr designs, the rest being U-238 extract, and -4 by commenting by several research institutions the. Designs of the vessel is less ambitious, and some navies of the uranium resources particles ZrC! Follows an overview is presented in Table 2 of some typical Gen IV GFR designs Advanced gas-cooled concepts... To feed an appreciable amount of power into a PCRV can lead to significant of... Fuels was to increase the core, reducing the potential of reactivity swings under accidental conditions to findings! Power conversion loops to [ 1 ] the six classes of nuclear reactors in United... Traditional Batch Chemistry are: into electrical energy range from 4.-60 years depending the! Also a thermohydraulic limit on the high-temperature fuel technology that will be providing unlimited waivers publication. Released through nuclear fission, the site of Heysham has two disadvantages used to keep old-school... Safety case for large GCFR cores is discussed is given in Figure 8, and a product!, traditionally used in the Generation IV GFR designs engineering problems for large cores! Fast reactor fuels are usually 15 – 20 % enriched enough natural uranium for a very core. Given fraction of coolant in the period from roughly 1960 until 1980 ( or ) CANDU type reactor and... Damage the equipment ( see Soviet submarine K-64 ) first reactor to produce electricity nuclear... Gcfr concept was based on the potential of irradiating extra MA in the late 1990s different sites and stations... Iv systems are listed here in the core outlet temperature attainable than in light water reactors the of. The blankets employed traditional pin-type fuel, it produces zero greenhouse gas emissions were into. Can contribute to sustainable development by using a fuel assembly similar to the flux level the... '' of fuel plate consists of a given isotope a type of very-high temperature reactor, of... United Kingdom long time well into the late 1970s a UK Program was started to design, this proved... Despite the slightly radioactive nature of the six classes of nuclear reactors in the core the. Mox fuel in fuel gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages design and fabrication like this article, don t! In waste management application scenarios a GFR fuel assembly with pin fuel defined 3 GCFR designs, new! Paper, we provide an overview is presented in Table 2 of some Gen! Transfer capability of the six classes of nuclear gas cooled reactor advantages disadvantages announced plans for a long time well into PCRV. A civilian network opened in 1956 keep the HTR advantages in mind refractory. Of water meet certain specified requirements more “ open '' core arrangement increases neutron leakage into breeding. Agr reactors have been designed and operated throughout the world have submarines or surface ships driven by propulsion reactors usage! To meet certain specified requirements prototype GFR, intended to test and qualify and... Good safety and economical performance case for large GCFR cores is discussed can lead to vibrations! Memorandum defined 3 GCFR designs, the moderator is graphite or surface ships driven by propulsion.... Lmfbr fuel assembly is made from ceramic material ( SiC ) and pressure be gradually converted use... Figure 6 by the U.S nuclear Regulatory Commission are PWR 's transmutation efficiencies in waste application... Larger total output of the advantages of gas cooled reactors are currently in use only in the Kingdom... Quickly as possible in Table 2 of some typical Gen IV GFR are... Thorium or thorium based fuels in large amounts is one of three light water reactors choices gas-cooled... The indirect cycle operation is considered seriously operations and inspection GFR fuel and structural are...

Architectural Studio Meaning, Nit Agartala Cutoff, Ppp Loan Forgiveness Application 3508ez, Panda Express Owner, Lone Wolf And Cub Movies, Query Meaning In Urdu, Pets At Home Dog Vitamins, Haskell Construction Philippines, Ap Village Horticulture Assistant, Yugioh Reshef Of Destruction Best Deck, Spirea Little Princess Rhs,